Category Archives: Education

Book Learning: How to study from a book

When you decide you need to learn something, probably the first thing you think of is to find a book on the subject. It may not be the best idea, but it will probably be the first.

And sometimes it is the best way; and it’s certainly the way I’m most familiar with, so that’s where I’m starting the series.

    Step 1: Pick a Book

    In some cases this may be done for you: in class, the teacher/professor may have selected a book and ordered you to read it — in that case, all you can do is hope that it’s good.

    But if you’re learning on your own time, for your own purposes, then you need to select one. At the library or bookstore, head to the right section, then just read through the titles. Do any catch your eye? Do any seem to be addressing the specific problem you’re having? Pull the likely ones off the shelf and open them to a random page. Does the advice make sense to you? Is it too complex? Too simplistic? Does it seem to actually address the specific problem you’re having?

    You can also do a quick web search or ask for recommendations from your friends/family/coworkers/geeky friends.

    Step 2: Get a recording medium

    Just reading a book does very little good unless you actually retain and — here’s the difficulty — think about what you’re reading. You may even disagree; that’s fine, as long as you’re thinking, analysing, and processing.

    And for that, you need some way to lay your thoughts out and look at them. I prefer to have a spiral notebook, because handwriting connects to my brain better than typing. My fiance prefers to type; in that case you could keep a document on your computer, use MS OneNote, or even start a blog. You could get a voice or video recorder, and tape your thoughts (and make a podcast or video podcast of it, if you’d like). Or you can start a book club, where everyone can put forth their analyses and discuss each others’. Just find some way to make yourself process what you’re reading

    Step 3: Read. Carefully

    If a sentence, paragraph, or chapter don’t make sense to you, then stop and re-read it. What doesn’t make sense? Are they using jargon you don’t know? Go look up those words. Does the logic not make sense, you can’t follow their argument? Re-read the section, starting with their premise and following the logic step by step. Do the data seem wrong? Do a web search and see if you can find any evidence for or against their claims. Do you think there’s a glaring flaw in their reasoning? Write/record/bring it up in your book club, and explain where you think the flaw is and how your reasoning changes the conclusion being drawn. Don’t proceed until you’re sure you understand what the author is saying.

    Step 4: Apply

    You got into this because you wanted to learn something, to solve some problem you’re having. So how do these lessons help? If you’re learning some background theory, then apply each lesson or chapter to your situation: what do these statements imply about your scenario? If you’re learning a specific how-to, then what would you have to do in order to actually do these steps? What would they look like in the case of your business/product/family/life? I like to do this throughout the book, but you could do it at the end of each chapter or section if you prefer.

    Step 5: Summarize

    When you get to the end of the book, look back over what you’ve read. Look over the notes you made. What were the most important things? Why are they important? Overall, do you agree or disagree with the author? Why? What do you want to differently as a result of your reading?

There you go: the book-learning methods they never taught you in high school.

Resources for Further Reading
Writing for you, and why it works at drawing others to your blog

How to Study

The Truly Educated Never Graduate

So here you are, ready to set off on your self-monetization journey.

You realize that you don’t know everything you’ll need to know if you’re going to be successful. So now what?

Option 1: Give up in despair. It’s a surprisingly common option.

Option 2: Learn what you need to know. That’s the option we’re going to discuss here.

Why you don’t know how to learn

In our society, there’s a pretty clear distinction between times of your life where you’re being educated, and times of you life where you’re not. Almost all “education” happens in the first 24 years of your life, and thereafter you’re off the hook; you don’t ever have to learn or study ever again.

…unless, of course, you actually want to succeed in life. Because

    (a) school doesn’t teach you everything you need to know (or, in some cases, hardly anything you need to know) and
    (b) the world is changing much too quickly for stuff you learned when you were 24 to actually be helpful for more than 5 years or so.

Which means you need to study.

Now of all the faults of the US school system (and they are legion), one of the biggest is that it gives you almost no training in how to study. It gives you lots of training in how to prepare for a test. But very little training in how to learn something you actually care about, for yourself, in a way that actually imparts useful information into your brain that you could then apply to a real problem.

So the bad news is, you probably have no idea how to study.

The good news is, you probably have no idea how to study. Which means the thing you’re thinking of when I say “study” (probably involving lots of coffee, a long night before a test, and using highlights, flash cards or other tools to memorize a bunch of unrelated facts) is not what studying is really about.

It should be noted that my method requires actual effort, and (depending on what you’re studying) can be a lot of work. But remember that this isn’t for a test on a subject that you never cared about anyway and only took because it’s on the list of requirements. This is for something that you care about, and that you need to be able to meet your goals and follow your dreams. Which makes it worth at least some effort.

How to Study

So being in your situation, there are 3 things you need to do:

  1. Figure out what you need to learn I realize this sounds dumb. But it’s a very important step, and it’s one you don’t learn how to do. In school they tell you what you “need” to learn, and you “learn” it. But here you have to figure out, first and foremost, what it is you’re trying to study.
  2. Figure out the best way to learn it This depends on many things: your learning style(s), what you’re trying to learn, and why you’re trying to learn it. In some cases you may want to read a book and take notes; in others, you may want to jump right in and try it over and over until you get it.
  3. Arrange to do that Again, in school, they schedule lectures, labs, and tests, and take attendance to make sure you’re actually keeping to the schedule. Here, you’re the one in charge of it. If you need practice time, make sure you have time set aside for it. If you need a book, make sure you buy it or check it out. Figure out how to get your studying done.

So that’s the essence of it; after that, you just need to do it.

In future posts, I’ll talk more in detail about each of those steps, and discuss various study techniques and tools.

What to do in case of economic downturn

There’s some segment of the population who believe that the US economy is going to collapse completely in the next 2 years, and that all sorts of disasters will then follow (world economy collapse, governmental collapse, etc). And they may even have a point at this moment, although rumors of impending economic collapse have been around for more than a century (don’t believe me? Read Thoreau).

But they always follow this up with “Buy gold!” The theory being that if the US dollar becomes worthless, you’ll still be able to buy things with gold, gold being the one true standard of value.

But as Scrooge McDuck himself has pointed out, gold is – in and of itself – pretty worthless. You can’t eat it, can’t wear it. It has value only to the extent that people are willing to trade it for food and clothing. It relies on a social contract just as much as US dollars do. And if the social contract has broken down to the point that US dollars are no longer accepted as currency, there’s a reasonable chance that gold won’t be accepted as currency either.

Where is the wealth of a country?

What made the US an economic powerhouse, what made us the richest country in the world and our currency the international currency-of-choice, was not gold. Was not our huge tracts of land nor the (admittedly extensive) natural resources that accompany them. What made19th-century Americans richer than anyone in history, gave the country a reputation as a place anyone could make their fortune, and raised standards of living by several thousand percent, were things like:

  • An environment where you get to keep most of the results of your hard work
  • an environment where you can start over after failure
  • recognition of opportunities
  • ability to form teams and work together
  • hard work
  • creativity
  • courage and determination

Those things aren’t based on the value of a dollar. Just the opposite: the dollar is based on those. When the US left the gold standard in the last century, we instead based the economy on the true value of the nation: hundreds of thousands of people, working day after day, to make this world a better, more comfortable, easier, safer place for their children and grandchildren.

Want Safety? Invest in You

Those things aren’t going away. They’re what Steve Pavlina calls “internal resources” – things that really can’t be eliminated by time or circumstances. No economic collapse can make you less brave, less creative, or less capable of teamwork.

If you really believe that change is coming – whether a total economic collapse or simply another Great Recession – then the best thing you can do is invest in yourself. Make you a valuable resource, that can be used to acquire resources like money, food, and shelter. As a basic starting point I’d recommend:

  • Make an assessment of your skills and experience. What can you do? What can you make, manage, create, design, implement, or discover? As you’re compiling your list, look not only at the specific experience you have, but at the general skills behind them. A telemarketer who’s not afraid of confrontation could do well as a negotiator or in law enforcement; a church youth coordinator may make a great teacher, or manager-of-linchpins; and I’m convinced that there is no one better at juggling multiple priorities with limited resources than a stay-at-home parent.
  • Look at your unique set of talents. What can you do well? What comes easily to you? What questions do people ask you, what problems do they bring you? How do those fit in with your skills? What skills might you be able to add to your repertoire without much difficulty?
  • Get comfortable with being in charge of your own income. Learn to analyze your spending. Learn to create a budget for an unsteady income. Figure out how much it really takes to keep your household going month to month. Learn how to run a small business – even if it’s just a vegetable-growing business. Practice meeting new people, keeping track of them over time, and telling them what you do. All of those skills—accounting, networking, sales, and financial planning – will come in handy no matter what the situation is.

What to do in case of economic upturn

Happily, and unlike buying gold, all of those skills will also serve you well if the economy doesn’t collapse. If the stock market continues its rebound, the dollar stays high and business booms, then you’ll be in a great position to take advantage of it by getting a better job (through your enlarged network and improved resume), earning freelance money on the side (through your newly-developed professional skills), or starting your own booming business (now that you know how to run one).

Invest in you. You can’t go wrong.

Hollywood and New Skills

It’s been about 4 months since I started my new business, and about 4 weeks since I quit my job to pursue my business full-time.

At first there were a lot of tears, fears, and uncertainty. It’s pretty overwhelming to not know where the rent is going to come from. I wasn’t very good at sales, but I had to sell if I wanted to eat, so I had to get up each day and try again.

Fast-forward 4 weeks

There are still a lot of tears, fears, and uncertainty. I still have to sell if I want to eat, and I’m still not very good at it. The doubt and overwhelming pressure still make me cry at least once a day.

See, in Hollywood, there’s a lot of doubt leading up to The Big Decision. But once you’ve decided, then actually implementing the decision takes only as long as one inspirational pop song. You try, and you try, and you get better, and better, and soon you’re ready for the Final Showdown.

It’s harder to live through it

We all know that that’s a technique Hollywood uses to compress the boring parts. But in your real life, alas, you don’t get to do that. Acquiring skills is more like the “Toepick” scene in The Cutting Edge: you’re going to fall down many times, people will laugh at you, and it doesn’t seem to make any difference at all.

I promise you are getting better. But I promise that it won’t feel like it for a while.

Resources for Further Reading
Mastery and the Average Factory Worker (PG 13: language).

You can’t risk XP

I talked a couple weeks ago about the RPG metaphor for improving your abilities: the more you practice, the more XP you spend.

But if spending XP is identical to “practice”, why don’t I just say “practice?”

Because practice is a verb — it’s something you can choose to do or choose not to do. But experience point is a noun — it’s a resource that you have and want to use wisely. It was for that reason that I treat it as a thing, and asked you to track where you spend your XP: I want a poor use of XP to feel as painful as a poor use of money.

The difference between XP and money

There’s an important distinction, though, that sometimes gets overlooked, and that’s that you can lose money. You can lose it gambling, or on a bad investment, or on a good investment that had bad luck, or simply falling out of your pocket.

But you can’t lose XP

You, like everyone else, get 24 hours a day; 960 waking minutes to do with as you see fit. Whatever you spend that time doing, that’s what you’ll get better at. Your XP always turns into greater skill at something.

You can take more chances with XP

That means that you can spend XP on ventures with much greater uncertainty, without worrying about actual risk. You can start a blog with no idea what you’re doing, and the worst possible outcome is that you learn something about blogging. You can start a freelance business by setting up a profile on elance and, and the worst possible outcome is that you’ve learned something about freelancing and online marketing.

You can risk money; you can risk pride; you can risk relationships. But you cannot risk XP. Practice is the only investment with a guaranteed return.

Resources for Further Reading
Homework: Where are you spending your XP?
The best place to invest your money

Reminder: If you like to run your life on the calendar year, it’s time to schedule a time for your annual planning retreat.